Gemstone treatment
Gemstone treatment

Memahami arti treatment (kata orang dimasak) pada batu mulia itu mudah, kami berikan analogi dahulu…

*Arti treatment dari inggris ke indonesia “perlakuan”.

Kita sering memakai sepatu kulit, tas kulit yang bermacam warnanya, ada biru, coklat, merah dll.

Kita sering menyebutkan kulit tersebut adalah asli, natural dll.
Karena kita tahu memang kulit yang natural atau alami.
Namun kulit tersebut bisa berwarna biru, merah dll, tentulah karena di treatment dahulu agar menjadi semakin indah.
Perangkat-perangkat terbuat dari kulit yang diwarnai, inilah yang dimaksud dengan treatment.

Bahkan kulit sintetis, sebagian bahannya memang berasal dari kulit, dihancurkan, dibuat ulang dari awal.
Jika seperti ini, kulit tersebut sebetulnya dari kulit yang alami, tetapi tingkatan treatment-nya sudah berat, bukan sekedar diwarnai saja.

Jika ada bahan lain, dibuat seperti kulit hanya teksturnya saja, nampak di mata saja, namun ternyata setelah diperiksa, dipegang kandungannya terbuat dari karet, inilah namanya kulit palsu.

Sekarang masalah batu, perlu kami tekankan, bahwa treatment “DIPANASKAN SAJA” atau “HEATED ONLY”  pada batu safir dan ruby yang kita miliki, adalah treatment yang paling ringan dan treatment yang masih diterima masarakat internasional dan berharga tinggi dibanding treatment yang melebihi HEATED Only, kenapa?

Seperti yang kami jelaskan pada tulisan terdahulu, ibarat pada lomba foto digital banyak panitia lomba yang masih mengizinkan kita setelah kita memotret, lalu kita “tambahkan” brightness atau contrast pada hasil akhirnya, karena pada kamera zaman dahulu juga bisa menaikkan atau menurunkan brightness contrast dll.
Tetapi haram jika mengubah bentuk si foto, lomba foto wajah manusia misalnya, hidungnya diubah menjadi lebih mancung dsb.

Nah pada treatment “DIPANASKAN SAJA” atau “HEATED ONLY” pada Ruby Safir dll, treatment HEATED ini pun dilakukan oleh alam, tetapi bedanya alam memanaskannya secara perlahan di dalam perut bumi dan perlu waktu bahkan jutaan tahun!
Manusia mentreatment heated only dengan cepat!

Treatment “DIPANASKAN SAJA” atau “HEATED ONLY”, artinya masih diterima dan berharga mahal, dengan kata lain harganya tidak semahal dengan yang tidak di TREATMENT SAMA SEKALI atau UNTREATED (jika kelas warna, kejernihan dll sama).

Treatment yang melebihi dari HEATED ONLY, jauh lebih turun lagi harganya, seperti glass filled, cobalt, coating dll.
Karena campur tangan manusianya sudah terlalu banyak!

Tetapi, jika ada safir dan ruby, di treatment dengan methode treatment berat seperti glass filed, lalu DIBANDINGKAN harganya dengan ruby safir UNTREATED TETAPI SANGAT BURUK penampilannya, buram, opaque, serat terlalu banyak, masih berhargalah safir ruby yang di TREATMENT Glass Filled tadi!

Contoh: Kami mempunyai ruby safir yang berkualitas rendah (HEATED ONLY bahkan UNTREATED) pada tampilannya, opaque buram, serat sangat padat, dan kami jual dengan harga 150.000 s/d 250.000 rupiah saja ukuran 5-15 karat.
Tetapi kami menjual Ruby Safir yang di treatment glass filled 5-6 karat pada harga 1.2 juta dll, bergantung kebersihan internalnya dll dll.

Definisi Treatment, untreated, enhanced pada batu permata baik ruby, safir, akik, kecubung, berlian, dan banyak lagi tipe batunya dan tipikal jenis treatmentnya.
Jadi jika di treatment artinya batu itu tetaplah batu asli, tapi dipercantik, disesuaikan dengan penggunaannya sesuai dengan treatment yang dilakukan, jadi bukan lab created atau man made atau sintetik apalagi Palsu/imitasi.

Contoh: kebanyakan kita berkata “batu masakan” “dimasak” dan seperti menganggap seolah telah terjadi suatu kesalahan berat atau tabu pada batu tersebut bahkan tidak menjadi berharga lagi.

  • HEATED, HEATING artinya batunya dipanaskan, untuk mengangangkat warna, menambah kejernihan dll.
  • Heating inilah standard “treatment” yang masih “rendah nilai campur tangan manusianya”, artinya batu tersebut masih tinggi nilainya dibanding proses treatment yang berat, misalnya “lead glass filling” dimana campur tangan manusia untuk mempercantik batu tersebut sangat besar.
    Ibarat pada kontes fotografi digital, kita masih bisa diperbolehkan merubah keindahan foto secara manual dengan metode manambah saturasi, kontras, brightness. TAPI tidak boleh mengubah, memperbaiki bentuk foto.
    Karena pada jaman dahulu, sejak kamera tercipta, memang bisa mengubah kekontrasan dll, itu sebabnya pada lomba foto digital masih diperbolehkan merubah/manambah saturasi, kontras, brightness.
  • Nah Heating ini juga telah dipergunakan sejak beribu tahun lalu, jadi proses heating ini masih sangat normal dan tetap bernilai tinggi.
    Kami sering, membeli batu ruby/safir peninggalan kakek/buyut dari para penjual, dan setelah kami periksa ternyata ruby/safir tersebut telah di treatment heated.

Kode-kodenya dan penjelasan prosesnya adalah sebagai berikut:

Gemstone Enhancement Definitions with On-Air Codes:

Assembled
The assembling of natural with natural and/or man-made parts to improve durability or appearance.
Contoh: opal doublet, mabe pearl, quartz triplet.
Kode: AS.

Autoclave Treated
A method of applying moderately low heat and pressure. Commonly done with copal to create green amber. This treatment simulates a rapid aging process, making the stability of copal comparable to amber while also creating a green color.
Kode: LPLT.

B-Jade
Natural jadeite that has been acid bleached to remove stains and impurities and is then filled with a polymer, usually with color added, to improve translucency and color.
Kode: B-Jade.

Blackened
The process of darkening the bottom of a piece of amber to alter the color. Blackening the bottom of golden amber creates a greenish color.
Kode: BLKND.

Bleached
The use of heat, light, and/or chemicals or other agents to lighten or remove a gemstone’s color. This is sometimes accompanied by subsequent dying and/or impregnating to stabilize the resulting color. Examples: cultured pearl, golden coral, B-jade.
Kode: BL.

Coated
The use of such surface enhancements as lacquering, enameling, inking, foiling, or sputtering of films to improve appearance, improve durability,provide color or add other special effects. Examples: some pearls, black star sapphires, some topaz, many beads.
Kode: CTD.

Composite
Composed of disparate pieces of various gem materials that are bonded together. May be dyed or bonding agent may impart color. Components may all be one type of gem material or mixed varieties. Examples: polycoral, mosaic turquoise, rainbow calsilica.
Kode: COMP.

CVD
“Chemical Vapor Deposition” – A high-tech coating process that is commonly applied to the pavilion (bottom) of stones to change or improve their color. Examples: diamond, mystic topaz.
Kode: CVD.

Channel/pipe diffusion
The high temperature diffusion of coloring elements, such as copper, along certain channels in feldspar. Example: andesine-labradorite.
Kode: DIF.

Dyed/stained
The introduction of coloring matter into a gemstone to give it new color, intensify existing color or improve color uniformity. Examples: dyed green jadeite, lapis.
Kode: DYED.

Excel/infused with hardened polymers
The filling of surface-reaching fissures with colorless polymers to improve clarity. Includes the proprietary Excel™ treatment as well as other semi-permanent processes which allow for ease of care and normal cleaning without degrading the appearance of the stone. The latest generation of treatment technology, these processes bring out the natural beauty of the emerald while minimizing care concerns.
Kode: POLY.

Flux healed
During heat enhancement, fluxes may be used to heal natural fissures. The process leaves glass residues, but minor when compared to infilling or lead glass treatments. Example: ruby.
Kode: FH.

Fracture filled
The filling of surface-breaking cavities or fissures with highly refractive colorless glass. This process improves apparent clarity.
Contoh: diamond
Kode: FF.

Heated
The use of heat to alter color, clarity, and/or phenomena.
Contoh: ruby, sapphire, tanzanite, aquamarine, demantoid garnet.
Kode: HE.

HPHT
The use of high heat and pressure combined to affect desired alterations of color.
Contoh: colored and near-colorless diamonds.
Kode: HPHT.

Impregnated
The impregnation of a porous gemstone with a colorless agent (usually plastic) to give it greater durability and improve appearance.
Contoh: stabilized turquoise, coral.
Kode: IMP.

Infilling
The filling of surface-breaking cavities or fissures with colorless glass or fluxes during the heat treatment process. Improves clarity and color, and it may possibly add weight. Lead is not present in these materials.
Contoh: ruby.
Kode: INF.

Irradiated
The use of neutron, gamma, ultraviolet and/or electron bombardment to alter a gemstone’s color. The irradiation may be followed by a heating/annealing process.
Contoh: blue topaz, colored diamonds.
Kode: IRR.

Lasered
The use of a laser and chemicals to reach and alter inclusions.
Contoh: diamond.
Kode: LAS

Lattice diffusion
The heat treatment at high temperatures with beryllium that deeply penetrates the gem material to alter the color.
Contoh: some padparadscha or yellow sapphires.
Kode: BE DIF.

Lead glass filling (hybrid)
A similar process to “infilling” using lead glass. Performed at lower temperatures, this is a less durable treatment and should be treated gently. Improves clarity, color, durability and may add weight through the filling of voids and fissures. In sapphires, cobalt is usually added to improve color. Requires Special Care.
Contoh: plum star ruby, Mahaleo ruby, cobalt-lead sapphire.
Kode: LGF.

Oiled/resin infused
The filling of surface-breaking fissures with a colorless oil, wax, resin, or other colorless substance except glass or plastic, to improve the gemstone’s clarity.
Contoh: emerald and any stone with surface reaching fissures.
Kode: O.

Pressed
The process of partially melting and pressing together smaller pieces or powders of natural resins such as amber and copal. Pressed amber retains the same properties of unpressed amber. In addition, it usually improves clarity and may have color added.
Kode: PRS

PVD coated
Physical Vapor Deposition Coated – A coating that is commonly applied to the surface of the product; which is then sealed with a polymer to protect it.
Contoh: Watches.
Kode: PVD.

Quench-crackled
A process mainly applied to quartz. By placing super-cooled stones into a very hot fluid, can add color while inducing a pattern of cracks.
Contoh: green quench-crackled quartz to imitate emerald.
Kode: QCR.

Reconstructed (see composite)
Small particles of natural material compressed and bonded into a larger whole. Also referred to as reconstituted, but better classified as composite.
Contoh: some turquoise.
Kode: RECON.

Smoke
In the smoke treatment process, smoke penetrates the opal to darken the background color.
This process results in a better contrast and brings out the play of color.
Contoh: Ethiopian Chalama opal.
SM.

Stabilized
Not to be confused with reconstituted turquoise, the more valuable stabilized turquoise is solid, whole turquoise that has been filled with colorless polymer to reduce porosity, providing a polished finish that protects the stone against breakage and discoloration. The color always improves as a result of the treatment, but some processes may add additional dyes as well. When color is added, this is additionally disclosed.
Kode: STB.

Sugar acid
In the sugar treatment process, the matrix opals are heated in a saturated sugar solution. The matrix material absorbs this sugar. It is then immersed in concentrated sulfuric acid. A chemical reaction takes place between the sugar and acid, leaving only the remaining carbon. This carbon darkens the background color of the gems which enhances the play-of-color and makes the stone appear brighter.
Kode: SA.

Surface diffusion
The outside-in diffusion of elements via high-temperature heat treatment to produce a layer of color and/or asterism.
Contoh: some blue sapphire, some star sapphire.
Kode: DIF.

Waxed
The impregnation of a colorless wax or paraffin in porous gemstones to improve their surface appearance.
Contoh: coral, amazonite.
Kode: W=WAXED.

Zachary process
Zachary processed turquoise has been treated with chemicals, and then heated. The process does not alter the properties of the turquoise, but does improve color and stability.
Kode: ZPR.
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Gemstone Terms:

Natural
A naturally occuring gemstone that has only undergone the standard process of cutting and polishing.

Treated
Gemstones that have undergone changes in color, clarity, and/or durability. Processes described as treatments typically go beyond what is considered standard enhancement.
Contoh: diffused sapphire, Mystic topaz (CVD), irradiated blue diamond.

Artificial/man made
The term artificial is a catch-all for any man made or lab-created gem. Artificial gems that have the same chemical, optical, and physical properties as their natural counterparts are more accurately described as synthetic. Any gemstone not of natural origin is considered artificial in gemological terms.

Synthetic
The term synthetic is used to describe a lab-created gemstone that has a natural counterpart. Synthetic gemstones have the same chemical, optical, and physical properties as those occurring in nature.
Contoh: synthetic sapphire, synthetic alexandrite

Simulant
The term simulant is synonymous with substitute or imitation. A simulant only mimics the appearance of another more expensive gemstone. A simulant usually indicates a man-made material, but may be natural.
Contoh: red glass (ruby simulant), white YAG (diamond simulant), sodalite (lapis substitute).

Lab created
The term lab created is used to describe any material made by man. Lab-created gems with no natural counterparts fall into the category of artificial, and are used as simulants. Lab-created gems that duplicate the same chemical, optical, and physical properties as their natural counterparts are more accurately described as synthetic.

Imitation
See simulant.The term imitation is used to describe any material that mimics the appearance of a natural or more expensive gemstone. Imitations may be man-made or natural.
Contoh: red glass (imitation ruby), white YAG (imitation diamond), red garnet (imitation ruby).

Hybrid
A stone with natural and artificial components, where the two cannot be separated. New category created by a new generation of treatments that add materials to a natural base material. In most cases, undesirable elements of a natural material are removed and replaced by added artificial gem material; lead glass, polymers or synthetic material. Some require special care.

Enhancement
A process that improves a natural gemstone’s appearance or durability by an accepted industry practice.
Contoh: heated citrine, bleached Akoya pearls

Color enhanced
Color has been improved by various processes or agents.

Clarity enhanced
Clarity has been improved with colorless glass, oil, plastic, resin or some similar substance.

Hardness
Hardness is the ability to resist scratching.

Toughness
Toughness is the ability to resist breakage (deformation in the presence of external forces).

Stability
Stability is the ability to remain unchanged in the presence of heat, light, and/or chemicals.

Durability
Durability is defined as a combination of hardness, toughness, and stability.
standard pearl processing Routine cleaning and bleaching of cultured pearls.

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